Breed Standard

Breed Standard


The Breed Standard is a guideline which describes the ideal characteristics, temperament and appearance of the breed and ensures that the breed is fit for function. The aim of this Breed Standard is to provide guidelines to breeders, appraisers and judges, who should at all times be vigilant to avoid obvious conditions or excessiveness, that would be detrimental in any way to the health, welfare or absolute soundness of the Boerboel.

Type, conformation, functional efficiency, mentality and composure are equally important in the evaluation of the Boerboel as a whole. The protective character of the breed is evident, as well as its impressive demeanor, good temperament, controllability and mobility.

Although the Boerboel has become a popular breed internationally, the center for breed specific knowledge remains in South Africa, as this is where its character is embedded.

Faults: Any departure from the Breed Standard shall be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault shall be regarded, shall be in exact proportion to the degree and its effect on the health and welfare of the dog.

Disqualification: Any serious deviations and/or combinations of deviations from the Breed Standard that may affect the dog’s health and/or performance negatively shall lead to disqualification at the discretion of the senior appraiser. (Refer to Disqualification).

The Boerboel is:
a) manageable, reliable, obedient, trainable and intelligent;
b) self-confident and fearless;
c) a dog with a strong protective instinct and loyal to members of the family;
d) shows courage when threatened;
e) steadfast and calm, with a balanced and confident nature when approached, and
f) a dog requiring training and firm handling from an early age.

The Boerboel is:
a) large dog with a strong-boned structure;
b) perfectly balanced within the desired proportions for the breed. The main structural components of the dog should show acceptable proportions to each other. The body is approximately 10 – 15% longer than the height (at the withers) and is measured horizontally, from the prosternum (breastbone) to a vertical line at the rear of the rump;
c) a dog with prominent and well-developed musculature;
d) impressive and imposing in appearance, created by a combination of conformation, carriage, confidence and powerful, buoyant and unencumbered movement – notwithstanding its size.
e) Males are distinctly masculine, larger and more heavily built with stronger bone, while females are distinctly feminine, but without weakness of substance or structure. Sexual dimorphism must be clearly evident.
f) The ideal height of a male is 66 cm but not lower than 60 cm.
g) The ideal height of a female is 61 cm but not lower than 55 cm.
h) Height must always be in relation to mass (the ideal ratio for a full-grown dog is approximately 1:1 – 1:1.2 cm per kg), overall balance and conformation of major body components.
 The shape and size of the head is a typical feature of the breed. The head
a) is large and typically Boerboel;
b) with no signs of another breed;
c) short, broad, deep, cube shaped – seen from all angles;
d) muscular and has well-filled cheeks;
e) in proportion with the rest of the body components and
f) the circumference equals the height to the withers (upper point of scapula).

Head characteristics are defined in terms of:
a) The skull is like a cube seen from all angles, large, and well muscled.
b) The width of the skull is equal to the length and depth thereof.
c) The length of the cranial roof (measured from the middle of the eye to the end of the occiput) must be relative to the length of the nasal bone in a ratio 2:1. Nasal bone should be third of total length of head. (See
d) The plateau is wide and flat with prominent musculature.
e) When the dog is alert, the upper level between the ears appears flat.

a) The face gradually blends with the skull.
b) The face may be with or without a black mask.


The ears are defined by:
a) Setting:
  i. The earflaps are set high and wide.
  ii. The earflaps are carried close to the head.
  iii. When attentive, the top of the earflaps must form a straight line with the plateau.
b) Shape:
  i.  Obviously V-shaped;
  ii. no creases and
  iii. a broad base.
c) Size:
  i. The earflaps are medium sized and in proportion to the head.
  ii. The bottom edge of the earflap is in line with the dentition.


The eyes are defined by:
a) Size and setting:
  i. Medium sized, rounded, forward facing, and widely spaced;
  ii. set on the same horizontal level and
  iii. not protruding or deep set.
b) Eyelids:
  i. Firm, well pigmented;
  ii. no structural deviations such as entropion, ectropion, distichiasis or signs of           
      surgical intervention and
  iii. not slanted.
  iv. The third eyelid (haw) should not be visible.
c)  Color:
  The color of the eye is any shade of yellow or brown.

a) The stop is visible, but not prominent/pronounced or absent.
b) The section between the eyes is well filled.

Nasal bone (Muzzle)

The nasal bone is defined by:
a) Shape:
  i. Deep, broad, cube shaped, and tapers slightly towards the front, but not
  ii. Straight and parallel to the line of the cranial roof.
  iii. Well attached and filled below the eyes.
  iv. The nostrils are large and widely spaced.
b) Width and depth:
  i. The width is almost equal to, but less than the length.
  ii. The depth should equal the length.
c) Length:
  The nasal bone is in proportion to the head, and measures approximately a
   third of the total length of the head, i.e. approximately 10 cm for a male of 66
   cm and 8 cm for a female of 61 cm.
d) Pigmentation: 
  The nose leather is black.
a) The upper lip (under the nose) just covers the top of the lower lip and teeth.
b) The upper lip does not extend below the lower jawline.
c) The lower lip is moderately tight (not too loose and fleshy), without open or
  excessive lip.

a) Dentition is complete.
b) Teeth are correctly spaced.
c) Teeth are ideally in a scissor bite.


The jaws are strong, deep and broad and taper slightly towards the front.
 The neck is defined by:
a) Shape
  i. Forms a unit with the head and the shoulders;
  ii. muscular and ideally with a discernible crest.
b) Length
  The neck is of medium length and in proportion to the rest of the dog. The length
  equals about 1/3 of the height at the withers.
c) Scruff and dewlap
  i. The scruff is loose.
  ii. The dewlap is noticeable and loose from under the chin.
  iii. The dewlap becomes taut between the front legs.
The forequarter is well muscled and correctly angulated from the well-sloped shoulder blade down to the elbow at an angle of approximately 90° – 100̊°.

The forequarter characteristics are defined in terms of:

The chest is:
a) strong, muscular and broad;
b) well pronounced and placed deep between the front legs with good volume;
c) the point of the prosternum is level with the point of the shoulder.


The shoulder blades are well attached with an approximate 70 mm space in

  1. The elbows are stable, parallel to and carried close to the body when in a

stationary position and during movement, not limiting the optimal volume of the centre piece/torso.

  1. The height of the elbows is equal to ½ of the height at the withers.

Front legs

The front legs:
a) have a substantive bone structure;
b) are thick, strong and sturdy;
c) have a well-defined musculature on the in- and outside of the upper legs and
d) are vertical, as seen from the front and the side.


The front pasterns are:
a) short, strong and of adequate girth as seen from the front and the side and
b) are a vertical extension of the front legs as seen from both the front and the    side, but slanting forward at a slight angle.

Front paws

The front paws are defined by:
a) Size: The front paws are large in circumference.
b) Shape:
  i. Well padded, ball shaped and tight;
  ii. strong, curved, with dark pigmented toenails.

The front paws point and tread straight forward.
The center piece (torso) must be of adequate width and depth with a level, straight top line and a slight abdominal tuck-up. The length of the ribcage, loin and croup (rump) is approximately proportioned.
The center piece characteristics are quantifiable in terms of:


The ribcage (the area from the first chest vertebrae to the last rib bone)
a) is well sprung with a deep, rounded brisket;
b) must ideally have a length proportion of 2:1 to the loin;
c) the depth is equal to ½ the total height of the dog at the withers, descending slightly below the elbow;
d) is filled behind the shoulder blades and elbows.


The back (from a point behind the withers/top of the scapula to the last rib bone) is:
a) broad;
b) flat;
c) straight and
d) well muscled.


The loin (from the last rib bone to the front of the primary thigh) is:
a) of adequate depth (slightly less than the length of the loin);
b) short (ideally ⅓ of total torso length);
c) wide as seen from the top;
d) flat as seen from the side;
e) strong and muscular and
f) moderately tucked up.

Top line

a) The top line (from a point behind the withers to the beginning of the croup) is straight without any deviations.
b) A very slight, non-flexible dip just behind the shoulders is normal.
The hindquarter is broad, of substantial depth, well muscled, in proportion to the rest of the dog and correctly angulated.

The hindquarter characteristics are defined in terms of:

The croup is:
a) of adequate length, broad, strong/muscular;
b) correctly angulated and slopes slightly towards the haunch;
c) the height should not exceed the height at the withers.


a) The tail is a natural extension of the spinal cord; therefore it is set fairly high, of adequate girth and straight.
b) Docked tails should ideally be docked at the third caudal vertebrae, leading to an ideal adult tail length of about 8 cm.
c) Long tails are permissible and are sabre shaped and should reach approximately to the hocks when the dog is standing.

Primary/Upper thighs

The upper thighs are broad, deep and with well-developed muscular definition when viewed from the side and the rear.
Secondary/Lower thighs

The lower thighs are well developed and display adequate, visible musculature down to the hock.
Stifles (Knees)

a) The stifle joint is strong and firm.
b) The angulation between the femur, tibia and fibula must be approximately 90° – 100̊ as seen from the side.


a) The hock joints are strong and stable;
b) correctly angulated as seen from the side without lateral deviation when standing or moving; and
c) parallel with each other when viewed from the rear.


a) The hind pasterns are relatively short, strong and of adequate girth.
b) When viewed from behind, they are parallel with one another.
c) When viewed from the side, they are vertical.
d) The front of the hind pastern is in line with the back of the haunch.
e) Dewclaws may be removed.

Hind paws

a) The hind paws are as the front paws but should be slightly smaller than the front paws.
b) The hind paws point and tread straight to the front.
The skin:
a) is moderately thick and loose; and
b) should show black eumelanin pigmentation.
c) There are moderate wrinkles on the brow when the dog is attentive.
 The coat is:

Short and sleek with dense hair coverage.

The recognized colors are:
a) Brindle, fawn, brown and black.
b) All shades of brindle, fawn, brown and black.
c) Brindle: a color pattern with irregular apparent vertical lines of only black hair on a brown (tan, red) or fawn base color.
d) All the colors and associated patterns should be accompanied by good pigmentation.
e) No other colors or color patterns or markings are acceptable.
f) Undesirable colors are:
  i) Excessive/large white areas in all colors are undesirable, and must be eliminated.
  ii) More than a third white of the total body surface is undesirable as it may influence pigmentation.

(Definitions: “Undesirable” means: Not recommended, but acceptable. “Unacceptable” means: Disqualification)

The Boerboel is well pigmented, especially on the lips; nose; palate; the skin and hair around the eyes; footpads; toenails; the anus, the nipples and the skin and hair around the genitals.

The general health of the Boerboel is of a high standard. Animals presented for appraisal must be in a good general condition and weight must be in relation to the size of the dog. Physical handicaps and former surgery must be supported by acceptable certification.
Reproductive organs
Both females and males should have at least eight nipples.
a) Males

  1. Male dogs must have two well-developed testicles, both in the scrotum.
  2. The penile sheath is short and firm and holds the penis close to the body.
  3. Castrated males, monorchids or cryptorchids, may be taken up in the Pet Register.

iv. Castrated males, monorchids or cryptorchids are not allowed in the show ring.
b) Females
    i. The vulva must be firm.
    ii. Sterilised females may be taken up in the Pet Register.
    iii. Sterilised females are not allowed in the show ring.
a) The movement is balanced, effortless, though powerful, purposeful, buoyant and fluent with comfortable reach in the front and powerful drive from the rear.
b) The stride is sufficient, long, free and unrestricted.
c) The legs move on parallel planes at all times. Whilst converging to the centre line of travel, the legs should never cross.
d) At all gaits the top line is stable (fixed), without any swaying, dipping or excessive body roll.
e) Limited, weak or unsound movement shall be severely penalised.


Body length measured from A (prosternum) - B (rear of the rump/croup)

Body height measured from C (withers) to the ground (D)

Forequarter: A – C

Back: C – E

Loin: E – F

Centre piece C – F

Croup/Rump: F – G (tail setting)

1.  Nose leather
2.   Nasal bone (muzzle)
3.   Stop
4.   Cranial roof
5.   Plateau
6.   Ear
7.   Muscular arch on neck
8.   Withers (top of scapula)
9.   Dewlap
10. Shoulder blade (scapula)
11. Shoulder joint (point of shoulder)
12. Upper front leg (humerus)
13. Elbow
14. Lower front leg (radius and ulna)
15. Front paws
16. Pastern joint
17. Front pastern
18. Tail
19. Ilium (point of hip)
20. Ischium (point of buttock)
21. Primary thigh
22. Femur
23. Knee (stifle)
24. Secondary thigh
25. Tibula and fibula
26. Hock
27. Hind pastern
28. Hind paws


To gain comprehensive statistical and genetic data on all Boerboels, SABBS urges members to present all dogs for appraisal. Dogs that do not meet the minimum score at an appraisal and dogs that have been disqualified (for whatever reason) shall not be registered, but shall be recorded in the PET Register. 
The senior appraiser has the discretion to disqualify a dog without the appraisal process having been followed through, in which case the fees paid shall be reimbursed. However, the appraisal chart must be filled in completely for data purposes. He shall also notify the Office providing reasons for the disqualification.
A dog that is disqualified because of aggression, timidity or was not fully developed at the time of appraisal, may again be brought forward for appraisal, provided that it has improved and/or matured.

The Society retains the right to disqualify and/or remove a specific dog from the database of which documentation presented proves to be fraudulent and/or incorrect.
Any serious deviations and/or combinations of deviations from the Breed Standard that affect the dog’s health/performance/functionality and/or mobility negatively are considered unacceptable and can lead to disqualification and/or the placing of breeding restrictions, at the discretion of a senior appraiser in order to retain breed integrity.
Traits that shall lead to disqualification are:

a) Any indication of another dog breed
b) Temperament
 Any behavioural abnormalities, i.e.

  1. An overly aggressive and/or uncontrollable dog.
  2. A timid or insecure dog.

iii.      A dog that bites its owner.
c) Size
    i. A dog not meeting the prescribed height.
    ii. A dog with insufficient bone structure.
    iii. A petite dog.
    iv. A clumsy/unbalanced dog.
    v. Unacceptable proportions of body components.
d) Head
A head that is not typically Boerboel.

  1. A too small or nondescriptive head.
  2. Erect or semi-erect ears.
  3. Serious structural deviations of the eyelids.
  4. Any other colour than yellow or brown eyes.
  5. A nose leather that is not black
  6. Excessive deviations of dentition

vii.     A narrow, too long or sharply pointed muzzle.
e) Body
i.             A chest that is too narrow.
ii.            Bandy or crooked legs.
iii.           A top line that is too hollow.

  1. A top line that is roached.
  2. A top line that is S-curved.
  3. Serious cow hocks.
  4. Serious sickle hocks.
  5. Slipping (unstable) joints.

ix.           Straight hind legs.

  1. Deformed spines.

xi.           Kinked, corkscrew, deformed or tightly curling tails.
f) Skin and pelt
i.  Long and/or curly hair.
ii.  Excessive skin.
iii. Insufficient pigmentation of skin around key areas (lips; nose; palate; the skin and hair around the eyes; footpads; toenails; the anus; the nipples; and the skin and hair around the genitals.
g) Color
i.Unacceptable colors and patterns in respect of the breed standard:

•  Liver color on any basic breed standard color.

•  Excessive ticking on any basic breed standard coat color.

•  Split face on any basic breed standard color.

•  Dilute powder and solid blue color dogs.

•  Black-and-tan dogs.

•  Coat color of more than one-third white overall.

•  Tri-color

•  Any colors not part of the Breed Standard.

ii.  Insufficient pigmentation

h) Reproductive organs
i.  Males without two natural and well-developed testicles.
ii.  Females with signs of vaginal hyperplasia or prolapse.

i) Mobility
i.  Clumsy or unbalanced movement.
ii.  Any visible impairment that seriously affects mobility.
iii. Physical handicaps which are not the result of an earlier injury.

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